CNC Machine Tools: How do they work?

CNC Machine Tools: How do they work?


- CNC machines guarantee efficiency and safety.

Starting from a raw material, such as wood, plastic, iron or other metals, CNC machine tools are able to carry out processes for the creation of objects of various kinds.

Thanks to the extreme versatility, there are different models of CNC machines, suitable for every need, depending on the production or processing of the material.

Among the most classic we find: the CNC lathe, the CNC drilling machine, the CNC milling machine and Machining Centers.

Cutting, shaping, routing, and measuring are just a few of the many tasks that CNC machine tools can perform.

That's why more and more productive sectors have decided to integrate this technology into their fleet of machines, such as the metalworking, manufacturing or even tailoring industries.

The typology of CNC machines is extraordinarily vast, there are different technologies depending on the Machining or the material you want to work with.

Let us recall, for example, the most classic applications of numerical control technology:


Foratrici CNC macchine

The CNC drilling machine deals with drilling a material through the rotation of a drill bit, which comes into contact with a static block and drills it.


Tornio CNC macchine

The CNC lathe it uses the opposite principle with respect to the drilling machine, i.e. the material to be worked is rotated against the tool, which remains stationary.


Fresatrice PCM Stampi

The CNC milling machine it is the most common numerical control machine and used at an industrial and handicraft level.

The cutters shape the material which is fixed to the work surface and by rotating the tool at high revolutions they remove the excess material.

The milling machines are able to make engravings, sculptures, works of art and very high precision machining. The best CNC machines achieve an accuracy of one ten-thousandth of a millimeter.

These 3 types of machines take advantage of the numerical control technology and apply it to different processing principles.

In addition to these 3 more "classic" applications, numerical control (CNC) is applied to many other types of machines with different technologies and uses. Among the most common applications with alternative technologies are:

  • CNC laser cutting
  • CNC plasma cutting
  • Water jet machines
  • Hot wire cutting machines

The software to be combined with machining with CNC machines

The universe of numerical control machines is not only made up of machinery, technologies and mechanical components, but also of software components: CAM and CAD programs.

First, the project or 2D/3D drawing of the object (CAD) is created on the computer, then the tool path which defines the movements to be performed by the axes and the tool (CAM) and finally start machining with the numerical control interface (CNC).


THE CAD software (Computer Aided Design) are programs that are used to make technical drawings directly on the computer.

These software have gradually replaced manual drawing and allow you to generate the project to be created by the CNC machine.

software CAM

THE CAM software (Computer Aided Manufacturing) they are programs that allow you to convert CAD drawings into tool paths, therefore into numbers that are considered by the machine as coordinates of a graph. The coordinates are translated by the CNC machine into real movements and allow for tool movement and material shaping.

Software CNC macchine

THE CNC software they are programs that are used for piloting CNC machines and robots, therefore for executing the tool path and machining. The interface designed by us makes the use of the user very simple and intuitive.

PCM Stampi uses almost all the best technologies on the CNC market, to make full sintered molds, as well as prototypes of various kinds, types and materials.

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