5 AXIS CNC: the advantages of a perfect machining

5 AXIS CNC: the advantages of a perfect machining

All the advantages of the 5 axis cnc

CNC is the acronym used for “Computer Numerical Control”, translated into Italian Computerized Numerical Control, and is a electronic control system internal, which takes care of commanding the movements of the axes, which can be up to 5 axes, and the functions of a machine tool during Machining.

CNC machines today represent an integral part of what is defined INDUSTRY 4.0, since their use greatly reduces manufacturing times.

This control allows them to come run predefined and programmed trajectories through a integrated software on specific moving axes, excluding the intervention of an operator and relieving him from dangerous and tiring work.

The machines must still be checked by a operator, which has the task of setting up the program, preparing the raw material to be machined and must intervene in the event of problems or corrections in the machining.

Most of machine tools today they are controlled by CNC, making them able to perform repetitive operations and also very high precision machining, which reaches an accuracy of one ten-thousandth of a millimetre.

cnc 5 assi

The advantages of Computerized Numerical Control are many and are mainly:

  • higher speed,
  • Greater accuracy,
  • Greater flexibility,
  • Better quality and less waste.

In a CNC machine tool, each axis has:

encoders, mounted on the axis, are optical scales which have the task of monitoring movement and position and transmit all the data to the central computer;

Electric engines, which are able to control the movement of the axes;

Drives, which trigger and control the movement of the motors of the machine;

Computer, the real "brain" of the machine, which executes the work program after having received the data from the encoders and the instructions from the operator and from the program. It is divided into two parts: one inside the machine and one outside in the operator console.

What do aces allow you to do?

The axes allow the tool to be inclined with respect to the work plane and, depending on their number, also increases the movement flexibility of the machine during machining.

The functionality and flexibility of the movements of a CNC machine, therefore, vary according to the degrees of freedom

The most common machines are:


which allow movements only on X and Y, and the machinings will not have any depth variation.


they allow you to work in 3 dimensions, but are limited to an interpolation only on the X and Y axes. The Z axis generally has a partial movement and can vary its height, but cannot be interpolated with the other two.


which add rotational motion to the work piece. 
In machines with 4 interpolated axes, the rotation movement occurs simultaneously with the other 3 axes, while in machines with 4 indexed axes, rotation can only occur when the other three axes are stopped.


that they combine both the rotation of the tool holder head and of the workpiece to the other 3 axes. These machines have an extraordinary flexibility of movement and allow for simultaneous interpolation.

There are also CNC machine tools with 3 axes, 8 axes or 10 axes.

The machines they use today a more advanced CNC device are the work centers 5 axis and can be equipped with swivel and tilt axes.

This system allows the tool to be inclined with respect to all work planes, making it possible to create complex figures, which would be very difficult to obtain with manual processing.

Inside PCM Stampi ha--two centres 5 AXIS CNC, a 4-AXIS and a 3-AXIS of high precision, plus a 5-AXIS and 3-AXIS for milling of various equipment and general mechanics.

Furthermore, the precision centers are programmed using one of the best CAMs on the market.


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