WHAT ARE THE MAIN MECHANICAL WORKS?
By Machining Mechanical Processing we mean operations that can be performed manually or by means of some specific machines with the aim of obtaining an object of a desired shape and size.
consists of the design and production of mechanical parts and machinery that help workers in a very specific area of mechanics: precision mechanics.
- Precision Mechanics is an industrial sector responsible for the production of micro-components, high-precision components and equipment, intended for various fields.
These can include the industrial sector, but also more exclusive sectors such as pharmaceutical and medical, where a very high level of precision is required.
Industrial production includes a wide range of mechanical processing, consisting mostly of assembly line production, including:
- machining by chip removal;
Let's briefly see together some steps of these processes.
- Fusion consist in obtaining a piece of the desired shape by pouring metal in the liquid state into suitably shaped containers, precisely called the moulds.
Metals that have the property of being very fluid and homogeneous in the liquid state are worked by fusion: cast iron, bronze, aluminium, copper and aluminum alloys. We will focus on deepening the qualities of many of these metals in the second part of this article.
The shape and finish of castings are typically coarse.
Let's continue with all the others mechanical processing.
- FORGING consist in deform by impact, with a hand hammer or mechanically, a piece heated to a variable temperature according to the different materials, called the forging temperature.
- LAMINATION is aoperation performed using special machines, called rolling mills, on a blank or a semi-finished product to transform it into a sheet or a bar of a specific profile.
machining: HOT STAMPING
- HOT STAMPING consist in deform a material brought to a suitable temperature enclosing it within a two-piece metal form (mould A and countermould B) e acting with strong pressure.
Hot forging is carried out on steel and other materials deformable at high temperatures
The machines used for this operation are high power presses.
machining: COLD FORGING
- COLD FORGING consists in obtaining pieces of various shapes from a sheet metal.
The most common stamping operations are as follows:
-EDM consists in obtaining generally hollow shapes in metals by exploiting very strong electric discharges between a negative pole (electrode) and a positive pole (the workpiece).
-EXTRUSION is composed in transformation of small ingots into bars, profiled, pipes from the complicated shape by passing the material through a shaped hole.
MECHANICAL WORKING FOR CHIP REMOVAL
- CHIP REMOVAL MACHINING are eseguite per mezzo di utensili manuali o di macchine utensili. They consist in removing the superfluous material from the raw piece (for example, a steel bar) to arrive at the desired shape and size of the finished piece.
- SINTERING consist in obtain the desired piece by compressing mechanical particles (dust) inside the moulds, then heating the piece obtained to high temperatures in order to melt the metal particles together.
The powder is compressed by a punch, also called a matrix.
The holes are obtained by means of pins of a suitable shape (also called cores).
The piece is extracted from the die by means of a mobile ejector.
Sintering comes used for the construction of pieces of very hard material such as stellite or metal carbides and also to build small machine parts out of steel and other materials. The pieces obtained can have remarkable precision.
MECHANICAL WORKS: WHICH ARE THE MOST USED MATERIALS?
The most suitable materials to be processed to obtain the desired finished product are metals. We mention among the best materials for mechanical processing the aluminum, the copper and the brass.-ALUMINUM it is perfect for its softness, its lightness and its resistance to oxidation. It is used for the manufacture of thousands of different products: let's think, for example, of the structural parts made of aluminum used in the transport and construction industries, where strength, lightness and durability are essential. The COPPER it is a metal that man has used for millennia; today it is used in hydraulic plant engineering, in electrotechnics and electronics, in construction, in coinage and, as for centuries, in crafts of all kinds. More or less the same can be said for theBRASS.
But there is another essential material in mechanical processing: theSTEEL. In fact, it is important to make distinctions between its various types.
Among these, tempered and tempered steel certainly stands out, which is suitable for withstanding high loads and shocks and has the best compromise between mechanical strength and toughness. The best steel for machining is NITRIDING steel, which is used to build gear wheels, pins, rollers, pins and all the instrumentation of the mechanical industry.Finally, it is important to distinguish between hot work steel and cold work steel. The first is more used in mechanical processing and belongs to a type used in processes with temperatures higher than 300 degrees and is resistant to oxidation, hot mechanics, thermal shock and thermal fatigue.
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